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Esplosione

Da Minecraft Wiki.
TNT exploding.

An explosion is a physical event, generally destructive, that can be caused by several different circumstances. It can destroy nearby blocks, propel and damage nearby players, entities, and their armor, and cause one or more fires. Explosions produce a "shockwave" particle effect.

Multiple close explosions may propel objects further, but have no cumulative effect on the destruction of a block. This is because explosions' damage to blocks is evaluated individually (per explosion), and blocks' blast resistance does not become "weakened" per explosion.

"Destroyed" blocks have only a 25% chance of dropping as collectible resources (and otherwise disappear), generally making explosions a poor resource gathering technique. Items that already exist as dropped collectible resources are not affected by explosions.

The propulsion effect of explosions is often used for TNT cannons.

Explosion Type Power Notes
Wither (on creation) 7
Ender Crystal 6 May start fires
Charged Creeper 6
Bed (in Nether or End) 5 Starts fires
TNT 4
Creeper 3
Ghast fireball 1 Starts fires
Black Wither Skull 1
Blue Wither Skull 1 Treats blast radius blocks (except bedrock and end portal frames) as having a blast resistance of no more than 4.

Effect[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Model of block destruction[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

1352 rays from the explosion center to points that uniformly distributed on the surface of a cube centered at the explosion with an edge length of 2. (However, this only defines their directions, not their length)
The roughly spherical pattern of blocks destroyed can be seen here.

An explosion can destroy nearby blocks. Its blast effect is evaluated independently on many explosion rays originating from the explosion center, as shown in the right figure.

  • Each ray has an initial blast force randomized in [0.7 × power, 1.3 × power].
  • The effect of the blast force is examined at checkpoints on the ray with step length of 0.3.
  • The blast force is absorbed (block resistance/5 + 0.3) × step length by the non-air block (no matter whether destroyed) at each checkpoint, and attenuated by step length × 0.75 between checkpoints, until completely absorbed or attenuated.
  • A block is considered destroyed if it can't completely absorb the blast force at any checkpoint in it (air blocks can be destroyed too).

From the above process, the following results can be deduced (where ⌊x⌋ is the floor function):

  • The blast radius in the air of an explosion (i.e. only attenuated, not absorbed by blocks) = ⌊1.3 × power/(step length × 0.75)⌋ × step length = 10.2 (charged creepers), 6.9 (TNT), 5.1 (creepers), 1.5 (fireballs). For example, a TNT explosion can destroy a torch 7 blocks away. But how many blocks an explosion can destroy is non-deterministic and also dependent on the specific location of the explosion.
  • The minimum block resistance required to absorb maximum blast force of an explosion happening in nearby air = ((1.3 × power − attenuation steps × step length × 0.75)/step length − 0.3) × 5. To not be destroyed, a block has to absorb all blast force at the first checkpoint in it.
    • The attenuation steps is subject to collision restrictions. For explosion in air, there is at least one attenuation step. TNT and creeper explosion are always 0.49 and 0.5 meter away from nearest block (2 att. steps), but fireball explosion can happen anywhere (1 att. step).
    • Thus, the block resistances are 121.00 (charged creepers), 77.67 (TNT), 56.00 (creepers), 16.42 (fireballs).
    • So water, lava (Note: Only the stationary block) obsidian, and bedrock are always indestructible, and fences and less blast-resistant blocks can be destroyed by fireballs. These are theoretical values, and in reality less resistant blocks are not always destroyed, and since Minecraft is supposed to be simple, there is no such mechanic.

Interaction with entities[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

An explosion has different effects on entities than blocks. Entities are damaged and propelled by an explosion if within its damage radius of 2 × power. Note that the "damage radius" is different from the blast radius of explosion effect on blocks.

  • For each entity within the radius, define impact = (1 − distance from the explosion/radius) × exposure.
  • Apply (impact2 + impact) × 8 × power + 1 point (half-heart, so we don't have to divide by 2 everywhere) of damage to the entity.
  • Propel the entity so that its velocity increases by impact in the direction from explosion to the entity.

From the above process, the following results can be deduced:

  • Entities will always get at least 1 point of damage if they are within the radius, regardless of their explosion exposure.
  • The maximum damage that entities can take (at the explosion center with 100% exposure) = (1 × 1 + 1) × 8 × power + 1 point of damage = 97 (charged creeper), 65 (TNT), 49 (creepers), 17 (fireballs). When entities are away or covered by blocks from the explosion center, they take less damage.
  • The maximum velocity gain that an entity can obtain from a TNT explosion is 1, at the explosion center with 100% exposure.
A primed TNT AABB has directionally asymmetrical sample points (1/2.96 spacing) because of rounding.

Calculation of explosion exposure[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Explosion exposure is simply how much an entity is visible from the explosion center, and is approximated with the ratio of visible sample points on the entity. The approximation algorithm has sampling error that results in directional asymmetry of propulsion. For example, a typical TNT Cannon has maximum range in the west direction partly because the primed TNT has largest sampled exposure in that direction.

Causing fire[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

If the explosion has the ability, it randomly starts fires in 1/3 of all destroyed air blocks that are above opaque blocks.

Permanent lag[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Permanent lag is essentially lag-fallout from an explosion, this consists of drops, liquid-physics, and increased render-complexity of the crater.

It is recommended that when making a large creative-mode explosion, one uses the command "/gamerule doTileDrops false" to stop drops from being generated by explosions.

Resistenza alle esplosioni[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

[edit values]

Block name Blast resistance
Roccia di fondo 18,000,000
Blocco comandi 18,000,000
Portale dell'End 18,000,000
Portale dell'End (blocco) 18,000,000
Incudine 6,000
Tavolo per incantesimi 6,000
Ossidiana 6,000
Ender Chest 3,000
Flusso di lava ?
Flusso d'acqua ?
Lava ?
Acqua ?
Uovo di drago 45
Pietra dell'End 45
Blocco di diamante 30
Blocco di smeraldo 30
Blocco d'oro 30
Blocco di ferro 30
Blocco di redstone 30
Mattoni ?
Scalini di mattoni 30
Terracotta 21
Pietrisco 30
Scalini di pietrisco 30
Muretto di pietrisco 30
Sbarre di ferro 30
Jukebox 30
Pietrisco muschioso 30
Mattoni del Nether 30
Staccionata di mattoni del Nether 30
Scalini di mattoni del Nether 30
Pietra 30
Mattoni di pietra 30
Scalini di mattoni di pietra 30
Lastra di pietra ?
Porta di ferro 25
Generatore ?
Ragnatela 20
Distributore 17.5
Gettatore 17.5
Fornace 17.5
Faro 15
Carbone grezzo 15
Cacao 15
Diamante grezzo 15
Smeraldo grezzo 15
Staccionata 15
Cancelletto 15
Oro grezzo 15
Block name Blast resistance
Tramoggia 24
Ferro grezzo 15
Blocco di lapislazzuli 15
Lapislazzuli grezzo 15
Quarzo del Nether grezzo 15
Redstone grezza 15
Botola 15
Assi ?
Porta di legno ?
Lastra di legno ?
Scalini di legno ?
Baule 12.5
Banco da lavoro 12.5
Baule trappola 12.5
Calderone 10
Tronco 10
Libreria 7.5
Lanterna di zucca 5
Anguria 5
Testa di creatura 5
Zucca 5
Cartello 5
Blocco di quarzo 4
Scalini di quarzo 4
Blocco sonoro 4
Arenaria 4
Scalini di arenaria 4
Lana 4
Monster Egg 3.75
Binario attivatore 3.5
Binario rilevatore 3.5
Binario alimentato 3.5
Binario 3.5
Argilla ?
Terra zappata 3
Blocco d'erba 3
Ghiaia 3
Spugna 3
Supporto per armatura 2.5
Pulsante 2.5
Torta 2.5
Terra 2.5
Ghiaccio 2.5
Leva 2.5
Micelio 2.5
Pistone 2.5
Piston Extension 2.5
Pedana a pressione 2.5
Block name Blast resistance
Sabbia 2.5
Sabbia delle anime 2.5
Pistone appiccicoso 2.5
Pedana a pressione ponderata 2.5
Cactus 2
Scala a pioli 2
Netherrack 2
Vetro 1.5
Pannello di vetro 1.5
Luminite 1.5
Lampada a redstone 1.5
Letto 1
Sensore di luce diurna 1
Fungo gigante ?
Foglie 1
Neve 0.5
Rampicante ?
Neve 0.5
Aria 0
Carota 0
Arbusto secco 0
Fuoco 0
Vaso da fiori 0
Fiori ?
Erba 0
Ninfea 0
Baule trappola 0
Melon Stem 0
Fungo ?
Portale del Nether 0
Verruca del Nether 0
Pistone in movimento 0
Patata 0
Pumpkin Stem 0
Comparatore di redstone 0
Ripetitore di redstone 0
Torcia di redstone 0
Redstone 0
Arboscello ?
Grano ?
Canna da zucchero 0
TNT 0
Torcia 0
Cordicella 0
Gancio per filo da inciampo 0

Typical damage radius[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

The player will receive damage, if within these radii of a 100% exposure ground 1-, 2-, or 4-TNT explosion, with the amount of damage labeled on each circle in the figures below.

KillRadiiGrenade1.png KillRadiiGrenade2.png KillRadiiGrenade4.png

History[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

st
0.24Creepers were first introduced in on August 24, 2009, based on a failed pig model Notch had created.
0.26 (October 24, 2009)TNT was added.
Java Edition Alpha
1.2Added Ghasts, which shoot explosive ghast fireballs.
Java Edition Beta
1.5Creepers become charged when struck by lightning, increasing the explosion's radius and strength.
1.6Trying to sleep in the Nether causes the bed to explode.
1.8Explosions will now emit shockwave particles after exploding. Prior to Beta 1.8, explosions only emitted smoke.
1.9pre3Bed and ghast explosions cause fire.
1.9pre4Trying to sleep in the End causes the bed to explode.
Enchantment "Blast Protection" added, protecting against explosions.
1.9pre6Ender Crystal added, an entity which sits atop of a block of bedrock. It can be destroyed with a melee or hit with an arrow or snowball, causing an explosion.
Sound UpdateThe 'Sound Update' of November 13th 2011 gave TNT a new explosion sound.
Java Edition
1.3.112w24aFixed explosions not pushing back players.
1.3.1Explosions damage the player different amounts on different difficulties, and no damage is dealt to the player on peaceful.
1.4.212w34aAdded the Wither, which shoots black wither skulls.
12w37aWither will make a massive explosion upon its creation after its health is fully charged.
Blue wither skulls added.
12w38bNew Creeper fall mechanics; Creepers will explode if they fall on the player from a certain height.
1.5Destroyed blocks have a 1/power chance of dropping as items; previously it was a fixed 30% chance.

Trivia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Explosions more powerful than 100 look mostly the same from the outside, as only certain lines are used to determine if a block breaks. However, some of those lines continue underground.
  • An explosion powerful enough to break bedrock would have a blast radius of over 30,000,000 blocks. If it were an uninterrupted blast, it would cover 238,775,501.2 blocks. However, explosions only follow certain lines, not every block (see previous).
  • Any explosion going off in flowing water will apply propulsion to entities, but it will not affect any block, whether the blast resistance of that block is low or high.
  • Explosions in or under water won't emit particles.
  • Explosions can redirect projectiles including Ender Pearls.
  • Explosions can break blocks on the other side of blast-resistant blocks that survive.
  • Explosions will propel dead mobs' bodies if they go off just after the mobs dies.
  • If primed TNT explodes in a large, solid cube of stone blocks, it will create an exact 3x3x3 cube inside.

References[modifica | modifica wikitesto]