Da Minecraft Wiki.
The difference between Smooth Lighting on and off.

La luce in Minecraft influisce su visibilità, spawn dei mob, crescita degli alberi e sulla possibilità di fiori e funghi di rimanere piantati. La luce può provenire da sole, torce, pietraluce, Jack o' Lanterns, fuoco, lava, fornaci attive, portali del Nether e dell'Endworld, torce di pietrarossa, ripetitori di pietrarossa, comparatori di pietrarossa, come da altri oggetti. Ciascuno degli oggetti produttori di luce ha un valore di luminosità variato in confronto a quelli altrui (es: una torcia produce circa il doppio della luminosità di una torcia di redstone), anche se non in tutti i casi.

Effects of light[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Keep in mind that light level is only one of the considerations that apply to mob spawning and plant growth. Refer to each mob's wiki page for more details. When referring to this table, please note that "Level" indicates light level and "y: #" indicates y-axis (elevation) coordinates.

Level 0–3 Level 4-7 Level 8 Level 9 Level 10 Level 11 Level 12–15
Bats Spawn at y: 0-62 Spawn at y: 0-62 from October 20th to November 3rd  
Blazes Spawn in Nether Fortresses Hostile
Wither Skeletons Spawn in Nether Fortresses Hostile
Silverfish[note 1] Spawn in the Overworld Spawn only from egg blocks
Slimes Spawn in swamp biomes at y: 51–69 Spawn in certain chunks in any biome at y: 0–40
Zombies & Skeletons Spawn in the Overworld Hostile Burns in sunlight
Creepers & Witches Spawn in the Overworld Hostile
Spiders & Cave Spiders Spawn in the Overworld Hostile Neutral unless provoked
Endermen Spawn in the Overworld and the End Neutral unless provoked
Ambience Triggered Nothing
Snow & ice[note 2] Forms Forms and melts Melts
Mushrooms Spread Uproot unless on mycelium or podzol
Flowers[note 3] Uproot  
Saplings & Crops[note 3] Uproot  
Grass & Mycelium Can't survive   Spreads to dirt blocks
  1. These restrictions only apply when spawning from a monster spawner, and not from a Silverfish block.
  2. Sunlight does not affect Snow and ice.
  3. 3,0 3,1 Applies to the light level of the block containing the flowers, saplings, or seedlings rather than the block they are planted in. Also, flowers, saplings, and crops will not uproot if exposed to direct moonlight, even though it is light level 4.

Blocchi emettitori di luce[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Comparison of the different light levels that blocks emit.

I seguenti valori indicano la luminosità dei blocchi stessi:

Icon Block Light Level
Luce del Sole 15
Beacon JE6 BE2.png Faro 15
End Portal.png Portale dell'End 15
Fire.png Fuoco 15
Glowstone JE4 BE2.png Luminite 15
Jack o'Lantern (S) JE4 BE2.png Lanterna di zucca 15
Lava JE4.png Lava 15
Lit Redstone Lamp JE3 BE2.png Lampada a redstone, se è attiva 15
Torch JE4 BE2.png Torcia 14
Lit Furnace (S) JE4.png Fornace, quando è attiva 13

Luce del Sole, durante

Pioggia o Nevicata

Glowing Obsidian BE1.png Ossidiana Luminosa (Pocket Edition) 12
Nether Portal.png Portale del Nether 11
Lit Redstone Ore.png Minerale di redstone, se toccato 9
Active Redstone Repeater JE3 BE2.png Ripetitore di redstone, se è attivo 9
Luce del Sole durante un Temporale 7
Ender Chest (S) JE2 BE2.png Ender Chest 7
Redstone Torch JE2.png Torcia di redstone, se accesa 7
Luce della Luna 4
Brewing Stand.png Alambicco 1
Brown Mushroom JE2 BE2.png Fungo Marrone 1
Dragon Egg JE1 BE1.png Uovo di Drago 1
End Portal Frame JE2 BE2.png Blocco del Portale dell'End 1

Light Spread[modifica | modifica sorgente]

T 13 12 11 10 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 T
13 12 11 10 9 8 9 8 9 10 11 12 13
12 11 10 9 8 9 10 9 8 9 10 11 12
11 10 9 8 9 10 11 10 9 8 9 10 11
10 9 8 9 10 11 12 11 10 9 8 9 10
9 8 9 10 11 12 13 12 11 10 9 8 9
8 9 10 11 12 13 T 13 12 11 10 9 8

The light from light-emitting blocks decreases by one light-level for each meter (block) of distance from the light source. Note that this applies to each of the 3 axes including N/S, E/W, and up/down. This fact is significant for preventing hostile mob spawning. If a torch (level 14) is placed on a wall two blocks up from the floor, the light level on the floor one block away from the wall will be 11 (e.g. 14 minus 2 down, minus 1 south). If the torch were placed on the floor at floor level, then the light level on the floor one block away from the wall will be 13 (e.g. 14 minus 0 down, minus 1 south).

Light decreases diagonally by "taxicab distance", or the sum of the distance along each axis. This means that if a torch (level 14) is placed on the floor, the light level on the adjacent floor blocks in all four direction will be 13 while the diagonal blocks in all four directions will have light level 12 (e.g. 14 minus 1 south, minus 1 east). Along a floor, this effect produces a diamond-shaped pattern of illumination around the light source. Remember, light decrease takes place in three dimensions. This means that if a torch (level 14) is placed on a wall one block up from the floor, then the block on the floor that is diagonally one block way will have a light level of 11 (e.g. 14 minus 1 south, minus 1 east, minus 1 down).

The minimum number of light sources needed to prevent hostile mob spawning in the Overworld is difficult to determine because light decreases in all three dimensions. Given a perfectly flat plane or floor, the cheapest and easiest solution is to place torches on the floor in a diamond pattern, with a torch every 6th block (5 blocks in-between each torch diagonally). To get a nicer looking surface, these torches can be replaced with glowstone or pumpkin lanterns embedded into the floor.

Here, the yellow "T" represents a torch on the floor, and number is the light level of adjacent floor blocks. Note that no block is less than light level 8, which means that hostile mobs cannot spawn. The green is only to highlight the 5 blocks between each torch.

However, when outdoors, if the ground level changes by even one block, this decreases light further, requiring a different pattern. Additionally, when indoors it may be more aesthetically pleasing to light sources along walls or attached to the ceiling. But this means that the light level will decrease from ceiling to floor, and the light level of the floor is used to calculate mobs spawning.

Light-filtering blocks[modifica | modifica sorgente]

How ice affects light. Click through to see it animated between ice and water.

Solid blocks prevent the spread of light, while glass and portal interiors have no effect on light level.

All other transparent blocks reduce the spread of light. The following values are the amount each block decreases the light value. The light emitted decreases by one for each square of distance from the light source, more depending on the block it passes through.

Icon Block Decrease
Farmland JE4 BE4.png Farmland
Cobblestone Slab JE4 BE3.png Slab
Cobblestone Stairs (N) JE6 BE6.png Stairs
Ice JE2 BE3.png Ice 3
Water.png Water
Cobweb JE2 BE2.png Cobweb 1
Oak Leaves JE3 BE4.png Leaves

Smooth lighting[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Smooth lighting (which includes ambient occlusion as well as interpolating lighting across block faces) is the lighting engine added in Beta 1.3, with the help of MrMessiah.[1] This lighting engine is set on by default, and can be set to minimum, maximum, or off by accessing Video Options from the Options menu.

The engine blends lighting to add semi-realistic shadows and glowing from light sources. It darkens inside corners, resulting in small spaces appearing much darker. Before Beta 1.3, the feature could only be obtained by modifying the game with the help of MrMessiah's BetterLight mod.

The "Maximum" smooth lighting toggle fixes bugs with stairs. However, this is an optional toggle. The "Minimum" toggle increases performance, but does not fix the bug.

Video[modifica | modifica sorgente]

History[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Minecraft has an extensive history when it comes to lighting. Classic's lighting model is simple and only checks whether a block is exposed to the sky. Indev's model is more complex and considers a block’s distance from the nearest sunlight and from the nearest light-emitting block. Alpha’s model is a refinement of Indev's, calculating sunlight and block-emitted light separately and using a different scale of light intensities. An earlier Beta update improved upon Alpha's model by adding the smooth lighting option, and in a later Beta update, the whole lighting engine was again rewritten to be much more efficient, have more detail, and be smooth in transition of lighting differentials.

Classic[modifica | modifica sorgente]

In Classic, "sunlight" is emitted by the top edge of the map and will hit any block that is under it. It will pass through transparent blocks to light blocks underneath. Blocks that do not receive light are in a dim shadow that remains at the same level of brightness no matter how far they are from a light source.

Indev/Infdev[modifica | modifica sorgente]

In Indev and Infdev versions there are 16 degrees of brightness, with a maximum of 15 for full daylight and a minimum of 0 for almost complete darkness. Brightness is a linear scale and represents its value divided by 15, so for example 15 is 100% (1515) and 13 is 86.67% (1315).

Each block that emits light has its own luminance value and the light value diminishes by one level each block from its source. If the neighbouring block already has a greater light value, it is ignored. The process is repeated for each block whose light value just changed.

During the day, sunlight has a maximum light value of 15. At dusk, it steadily decreases until it reaches a night-time minimum value of 4 representing moonlight. Sunlight is emitted by the top edge of the map, but does not diminish with distance from its “source”. A block lit by sunlight will be equally bright at any height or depth.

Lighting in Minecraft - Pocket Edition works the same as lighting in Minecraft.

Alpha - Beta 1.2_02[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Lighting in Alpha through pre-Beta 1.3 works as Indev and Infdev, except that the scale is different and is not linear.

Full daylight provides the maximum brightness of 15. Each value below this is 80% as bright as the one above it. For example, 14 is 80% as bright as sunlight, and 13 is 64% bright. This means that Level 0 still has 0.8¹⁵·100% = 3.5% of the maximum brightness.

Sunlight in Alpha has its own light array and a behind-the-scenes optimization to make dawn and dusk smoother: the amount of light from the sky is pre-calculated and saved along with the blocks, because it never needs to change except when blocks are added or removed. During dusk, nighttime, and dawn, a "darkness" value is subtracted from the sky to create the effects of different times of day.

In the Nether, light decreases by 10% each level, rather than the normal 20%. This means it will never be totally dark in the Nether. The minimum light value is 20.59%, providing a permanent dim ambience equivalent to normal world's level 8.

Beta 1.3 - Beta 1.7.3[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Lighting from Beta 1.3 to 1.7.3 works the same as how it was in Alpha, but is greater optimized to allow smooth lighting.

Beta 1.8 - 1.4.7[modifica | modifica sorgente]

In Beta 1.8, a new lighting engine was implemented. The new engine has added and changed the following:

  • The lighting of an area is influenced by the type of light source that is lighting the block: moonlight gives a blue tint, torches and lava give a reddish tint, and complete darkness and sunlight are the same as before.
  • Changes in lighting are now instant, and can be gradual as changes in the time of day and the state of rainfall now smoothly change the lighting value rather than individually updating the lighting of chunks one by one.
  • Using the new instant lighting, non-sunlight lighting now subtly flickers, although this feature is purely cosmetic and has no effect on gameplay.
  • Sunset is much more intense and realistic than before, and its intensity dims if the player turns away from it.
  • At extreme depths, black fog closes in. At the bedrock level, a torch can no longer be seen from 11 squares distance. This effect is inhibited by proximity to open sky (i.e. the degree to which the place where you are standing would be lit by sunlight), whether or not the sun is currently up. Digging a shaft from the surface down to your room will allow you to see far, even at bedrock level.
  • When inside the void, lighting operates similar to Classic, where objects in the void will remain at a constant brightness, regardless of how far they travel away from a light source, provided that they remain directly underneath an opening into the void. The brightness of the particular "column" of space is based on the current light level at level 0, the bottom bedrock layer. This applies to all entities, as well as particles.
  • Additionally, sitting in the void underneath a shaft which allows sunlight directly into it will remove the void fog, regardless to whether is it daytime or not.

1.5[modifica | modifica sorgente]

As of 1.5, there were several lighting optimizations, including more realistic lighting and lighting interacting correctly with slabs and stairs (Maximum smooth lighting). However, furnaces emitting light from all sides, and black spots in world generation were not fixed. As well, there are now three different levels of smooth lighting: Off, Minimum, and Maximum.

1.7.2[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Black patches in world generation and structure generation were fixed in the 1.7.2 update.[2]

Future[modifica | modifica sorgente]

In snapshot 12w39a, Dinnerbone fixed black patches in world generation,[3] and began overhauling the lighting systems such as changing the lighting of blocks to allow for directional lighting.[4][5]

World generation issues were temporarily fixed,[6] but Dinnerbone reverted these changes due to performance decreases.[7][8]

Trivia[modifica | modifica sorgente]

  • Hostile mobs can spawn in areas where there should be light, but there isn't. This is because the game thinks there is a light level of 0.
  • Smooth Lighting is not apparent on the top of water or on paintings.
  • A 21 x 21 square of opaque material is enough to spawn mobs in the shadow underneath.
  • If Zombies or Skeletons are in water or in the low light levels caused by trees, they can survive through the daytime.
  • The Halloween Update version Alpha 1.2.0 allowed monsters to spawn in higher light levels at lower depths, using the formula 16 − (Layer / 8). At level 8 and below, mobs could spawn even in sunlight. Notch reverted mob spawning to the original method in version Alpha 1.2.1, saying, "it was way too annoying. I have plans on what to do with this."
  • In Minecraft's source code, the luminescences are defined using the floating point values in the third column. In a weird quirk, these floating point numbers are fractions of 16, but are multiplied by 15 to get the integer light value. This means that both 0/16 and 1/16 (0.0 and 0.0625) correspond to the integer light value 0.

Gallery[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Collegamenti[modifica | modifica sorgente]